Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Feb. 02, 2019
|Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Nature of Operations
Macy’s, Inc. and subsidiaries (the “Company”) is an omnichannel retail organization operating stores, websites and mobile applications under three brands (Macy’s, Bloomingdale’s and bluemercury) that sell a wide range of merchandise, including apparel and accessories (men's, women's and kids'), cosmetics, home furnishings and other consumer goods. The Company has stores in 43 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico and Guam. As of February 2, 2019, the Company’s operations and operating segments were conducted through Macy’s, Bloomingdale’s, Bloomingdale’s The Outlet, Macy's Backstage, and bluemercury, which are aggregated into one reporting segment in accordance with the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 280, Segment Reporting. The metrics used by management to assess the performance of the Company’s operating divisions include sales trends, gross margin rates, expense rates, and rates of earnings before interest and taxes (“EBIT”) and earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (“EBITDA”). The Company’s operating divisions have historically had similar economic characteristics and are expected to have similar economic characteristics and long-term financial performance in future periods.
The Company’s fiscal year ends on the Saturday closest to January 31. Fiscal years 2018, 2017 and 2016 ended on February 2, 2019, February 3, 2018 and January 28, 2017, respectively. Fiscal years 2018 and 2016 included 52 weeks and fiscal year 2017 included 53 weeks. References to years in the Consolidated Financial Statements relate to fiscal years rather than calendar years.
Basis of Presentation
In August 2015, the Company established a joint venture, Macy's China Limited, of which the Company held a sixty-five percent ownership interest and Hong Kong-based Fung Retailing Limited held the remaining thirty-five percent ownership interest. Macy's China Limited sold merchandise in China through an e-commerce presence on Alibaba Group's Tmall Global. In January 2019, the Company ended the joint venture with Fung Retailing Limited after winding down the operations of Macy's China Limited earlier in 2018. In conjunction with the termination of the joint venture, the Company acquired the noncontrolling interest in Macy's China Limited from Fung Retailing Limited, resulting in one hundred percent ownership. For the period of time prior to the acquisition of the noncontrolling interest, Fung Retailing Limited's thirty-five percent proportionate share of the results of Macy's China Limited was reported as noncontrolling interest in the Consolidated Financial Statements. All significant intercompany transactions were eliminated.
For 2018, the Consolidated Financial Statements include the accounts of Macy's, Inc. and its 100%-owned subsidiaries and, for the applicable periods, the majority-owned subsidiary, Macy's China Limited.
Certain reclassifications were made to prior years' amounts to conform with the classifications of such amounts in the most recent years.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Such estimates and assumptions are subject to inherent uncertainties, which may result in actual amounts differing from reported amounts.
Revenue is recognized when customers obtain control of goods and services promised by the Company. The amount of revenue recognized is based on the amount that reflects the consideration that is expected to be received in exchange for those respective goods and services. See Note 2 "Revenue" for further discussion of the Company's accounting policies for revenue from contracts with customers.
Cost of Sales
Cost of sales consists of the cost of merchandise, including inbound freight, shipping and handling costs, and depreciation. An estimated allowance for future sales returns is recorded and cost of sales is adjusted accordingly.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents include cash and liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less. Cash and cash equivalents includes amounts due in respect of credit card sales transactions that are settled early in the following period in the amount of $114 million at February 2, 2019 and $102 million at February 3, 2018.
The Company from time to time invests in debt and equity securities, including companies engaged in complementary businesses. All debt securities held by the Company are accounted for under ASC Topic 320, Investments – Debt Securities, while all marketable securities held by the Company are accounted for under ASC Topic 321, Investments – Equity Securities. Unrealized holding gains and losses on trading securities and equity securities with a readily determinable fair value are recognized in the Consolidated Statements of Income. Equity securities without a readily determinable fair value are generally recorded at cost. Unrealized holding gains and losses on available-for-sale securities are included as a separate component of accumulated other comprehensive income, net of income tax effect, until realized. At February 2, 2019, the Company did not hold any held-to-maturity or available-for-sale securities.
Receivables were $400 million at February 2, 2019, compared to $363 million at February 3, 2018.
The Company and Citibank, the owner of most of the Company's credit assets, are party to a long-term marketing and servicing alliance pursuant to the terms of a Credit Card Program Agreement (the “Program Agreement”). Income earned under the Program Agreement is treated as credit card revenues, net on the Consolidated Statements of Income. Under the Program Agreement, Citibank offers proprietary and non-proprietary credit cards to the Company’s customers through previously existing and newly opened accounts.
Merchandise inventories are valued at lower of cost or market using the last-in, first-out (LIFO) retail inventory method. Under the retail inventory method, inventory is segregated into departments of merchandise having similar characteristics, and is stated at its current retail selling value. Inventory retail values are converted to a cost basis by applying specific average cost factors for each merchandise department. Cost factors represent the average cost-to-retail ratio for each merchandise department based on beginning inventory and the annual purchase activity. At February 2, 2019 and February 3, 2018, merchandise inventories valued at LIFO, including adjustments as necessary to record inventory at the lower of cost or market, approximated the cost of such inventories using the first-in, first-out (FIFO) retail inventory method. The application of the LIFO retail inventory method did not result in the recognition of any LIFO charges or credits affecting cost of sales for 2018, 2017 or 2016. The retail inventory method inherently requires management judgments and estimates, such as the amount and timing of permanent markdowns to clear unproductive or slow-moving inventory, which may impact the ending inventory valuation as well as gross margins.
Permanent markdowns designated for clearance activity are recorded when the utility of the inventory has diminished. Factors considered in the determination of permanent markdowns include current and anticipated demand, customer preferences, age of the merchandise and fashion trends. When a decision is made to permanently markdown merchandise, the resulting gross margin reduction is recognized in the period the markdown is recorded.
Physical inventories are generally taken within each merchandise department annually, and inventory records are adjusted accordingly, resulting in the recording of actual shrinkage. Physical inventories are taken at all store locations for substantially all merchandise categories approximately three weeks before the end of the year. Shrinkage is estimated as a percentage of sales at interim periods and for this approximate three-week period, based on historical shrinkage rates. While it is not possible to quantify the impact from each cause of shrinkage, the Company has loss prevention programs and policies that are intended to minimize shrinkage, including the use of radio frequency identification cycle counts and interim inventories to keep the Company's merchandise files accurate.
The Company receives certain allowances as reimbursement for markdowns taken and/or to support the gross margins earned in connection with the sales of merchandise. These allowances are recognized when earned. The Company also receives advertising allowances from approximately 800 of its merchandise vendors pursuant to cooperative advertising programs, with some vendors participating in multiple programs. These allowances represent reimbursements by vendors of costs incurred by the Company to promote the vendors’ merchandise and are netted against advertising and promotional costs when the related costs are incurred. Advertising allowances in excess of costs incurred are recorded as a reduction of merchandise costs and, ultimately, through cost of sales when the merchandise is sold.
The arrangements pursuant to which the Company’s vendors provide allowances, while binding, are generally informal in nature and one year or less in duration. The terms and conditions of these arrangements vary significantly from vendor to vendor and are influenced by, among other things, the type of merchandise to be supported.
Advertising and promotional costs are generally expensed at first showing. Advertising and promotional costs and cooperative advertising allowances were as follows:
Property and Equipment
Depreciation of owned properties is provided primarily on a straight-line basis over the estimated asset lives, which range from fifteen to fifty years for buildings and building equipment and three to fifteen years for fixtures and equipment. Real estate taxes and interest on construction in progress and land under development are capitalized. Amounts capitalized are amortized over the estimated lives of the related depreciable assets. The Company receives contributions from developers and merchandise vendors to fund building improvement and the construction of vendor shops. Such contributions are generally netted against the capital expenditures.
Buildings on leased land and leasehold improvements are amortized over the shorter of their economic lives or the lease term, beginning on the date the asset is put into use.
The carrying value of long-lived assets is periodically reviewed by the Company whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that a potential impairment has occurred. For long-lived assets held for use, a potential impairment has occurred if projected future undiscounted cash flows are less than the carrying value of the assets. The estimate of cash flows includes management’s assumptions of cash inflows and outflows directly resulting from the use of those assets in operations. When a potential impairment has occurred, an impairment write-down is recorded if the carrying value of the long-lived asset exceeds its fair value. The Company believes its estimated cash flows are sufficient to support the carrying value of its long-lived assets. If estimated cash flows significantly differ in the future, the Company may be required to record asset impairment write-downs.
If the Company commits to a plan to dispose of a long-lived asset before the end of its previously estimated useful life, estimated cash flows are revised accordingly, and the Company may be required to record an asset impairment write-down. Additionally, related liabilities arise such as severance, contractual obligations and other accruals associated with store closings from decisions to dispose of assets. The Company estimates these liabilities based on the facts and circumstances in existence for each restructuring decision. The amounts the Company will ultimately realize or disburse could differ from the amounts assumed in arriving at the asset impairment and restructuring charge recorded.
The Company classifies certain long-lived assets as held for disposal by sale and ceases depreciation when the particular criteria for such classification are met, including the probable sale within one year. For long-lived assets to be disposed of by sale, an impairment charge is recorded if the carrying amount of the asset exceeds its fair value less costs to sell. Such valuations include estimations of fair values and incremental direct costs to transact a sale.
The Company recognizes operating lease minimum rentals on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Executory costs such as real estate taxes and maintenance, and contingent rentals such as those based on a percentage of sales are recognized as incurred.
The lease term, which includes all renewal periods that are considered to be reasonably assured, begins on the date the Company has access to the leased property. The Company receives contributions from landlords to fund buildings and leasehold improvements. Such contributions are recorded as deferred rent and amortized as reductions to lease expense over the lease term.
Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets
The carrying value of goodwill and other intangible assets with indefinite lives are reviewed at least annually for possible impairment in accordance with ASC Subtopic 350-20, Goodwill, including the adoption of Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") 2017-04, Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment, in the fourth quarter of 2017. Goodwill and other intangible assets with indefinite lives have been assigned to reporting units for purposes of impairment testing. The reporting units are the Company’s retail operating divisions. Goodwill and other intangible assets with indefinite lives are tested for impairment annually at the end of the fiscal month of May. The Company evaluates qualitative factors to determine if it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying value and whether it is necessary to perform the goodwill impairment process. If required, the Company performs a quantitative impairment test which involves a comparison of each reporting unit’s fair value to its carrying value and the Company estimates fair value based on discounted cash flows. The reporting unit’s discounted cash flows require significant management judgment with respect to sales, gross margin and SG&A rates, capital expenditures and the selection and use of an appropriate discount rate. The projected sales, gross margin and SG&A expense rate assumptions and capital expenditures are based on the Company’s annual business plan or other forecasted results. Discount rates reflect market-based estimates of the risks associated with the projected cash flows directly resulting from the use of those assets in operations. The estimates of fair value of reporting units are based on the best information available as of the date of the assessment. If the carrying value of a reporting unit exceeds its fair value, an impairment loss will be recognized in an amount equal to such excess, limited to the total amount of goodwill allocated to the reporting unit. If the carrying value of an individual indefinite-lived intangible asset exceeds its fair value, such individual indefinite-lived intangible asset is written down by an amount equal to such excess.
The Company capitalizes purchased and internally developed software and amortizes such costs to expense on a straight-line basis generally over three to five years. Capitalized software is included in other assets on the Consolidated Balance Sheets.
The Company only offers no-fee, non-expiring gift cards to its customers. At the time gift cards are sold or issued, no revenue is recognized; rather, the Company records an accrued liability to customers. The liability is relieved and revenue is recognized equal to the amount redeemed at the time gift cards are redeemed for merchandise. The Company records revenue from unredeemed gift cards (breakage) in net sales on a pro-rata basis over the time period gift cards are actually redeemed. At least three years of historical data, updated annually, is used to determine actual redemption patterns. The Company records breakage income within net sales on the Consolidated Statements of Income.
The Company maintains customer loyalty programs in which customers earn points based on their purchases. Under the Macy’s Star Rewards loyalty program, points are earned based on customers’ spending on Macy’s private label and co-branded credit cards as well as non-proprietary cards during certain tender-neutral promotional events. Under the Macy’s brand, the Company previously participated in a coalition program (Plenti) whereby customers could earn points based on spending levels with bonus opportunities through various targeted offers and promotions at Macy's and other partners. The Company's participation in Plenti ended on May 3, 2018. Under the Bloomingdale’s Loyallist program, the Company offers a tender neutral points-based program. The Company recognizes the estimated net amount of the rewards that will be earned and redeemed as a reduction to net sales at the time of the initial transaction and as tender when the points are subsequently redeemed by a customer.
The Company, through its insurance subsidiary, is self-insured for workers compensation and general liability claims up to certain maximum liability amounts. Although the amounts accrued are actuarially determined based on analysis of historical trends of losses, settlements, litigation costs and other factors, the amounts the Company will ultimately disburse could differ from such accrued amounts.
Post Employment and Postretirement Obligations
The Company, through its actuaries, utilizes assumptions when estimating the liabilities for pension and other employee benefit plans. These assumptions, where applicable, include the discount rates used to determine the actuarial present value of projected benefit obligations, the rate of increase in future compensation levels, mortality rates, the long-term rate of return on assets and the growth in health care costs. The Company measures post employment and postretirement assets and obligations using the month-end that is closest to the Company's fiscal year-end or an interim period quarter-end if a plan is determined to qualify for a remeasurement. The benefit expense is generally recognized in the Consolidated Financial Statements on an accrual basis over the average remaining lifetime of participants, and the accrued benefits are reported in other assets, accounts payable and accrued liabilities and other liabilities on the Consolidated Balance Sheets, as appropriate.
Income taxes are accounted for under the asset and liability method. Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases, and net operating loss and tax credit carryforwards. Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred income tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in the Consolidated Statements of Income in the period that includes the enactment date. Deferred income tax assets are reduced by a valuation allowance when it is more likely than not that some portion of the deferred income tax assets will not be realized.
Stock Based Compensation
The Company records stock-based compensation expense according to the provisions of ASC Topic 718, Compensation – Stock Compensation. ASC Topic 718 requires all share-based payments to employees, including grants of employee stock options, to be recognized in the financial statements based on their fair values. Under the provisions of ASC Topic 718, the Company determines the appropriate fair value model to be used for valuing share-based payments and the amortization method for compensation cost.
Total comprehensive income represents the change in equity during a period from sources other than transactions with shareholders and, as such, includes net income. For the Company, the only other components of total comprehensive income for 2018, 2017 and 2016 relate to post employment and postretirement plan items. Settlement charges incurred are included as a separate component of income before income taxes in the Consolidated Statements of Income. Amortization reclassifications out of accumulated other comprehensive loss are included in the computation of net periodic benefit cost (income) and are included in benefit plan income, net on the Consolidated Statements of Income.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, which established principles to report useful information to financial statements users about the nature, timing and uncertainty of revenue from contracts with customers. ASU No. 2014-09 along with various related amendments comprise ASC Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, and provide guidance that is applicable to all contracts with customers regardless of industry-specific or transaction-specific fact patterns. The new standard and its related updates were adopted by the Company on February 4, 2018. On the effective date, the Company elected to apply the new guidance retrospectively to each prior period presented.
Overall, the new standard did not have a material impact on the results of the Company's operations or consolidated statements of financial position, but impacted the presentation and timing of certain revenue transactions. Specifically, the changes included gross presentation of the Company's estimates for future sales returns and related recoverable assets, presenting income from credit operations, gift card breakage income, and certain loyalty program income as separate components of revenue and recognizing gift card breakage revenue over the period of redemption for gift cards associated with certain returns. The Company's evaluation of the new standards included a review of certain vendor arrangements to determine whether the Company acts as principal or agent in such arrangements and such evaluation did not result in any material changes in gross versus net presentation as a result of the adoption of the new standards.
In March 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-07, Compensation-Retirement Benefits (ASC Topic 715), which requires employers to disaggregate the service cost component from other components of net periodic benefit costs and to disclose the amounts of net periodic benefit costs that are included in each income statement line item. The standard requires employers to report the service cost component in the same line item as other compensation costs and to report the other components of net periodic benefit costs (which include interest costs, expected return on plan assets, amortization of prior service cost or credits and actuarial gains and losses) separately and outside a subtotal of operating income. The Company adopted this standard effective February 4, 2018 on a retrospective basis to each prior period presented and has recognized its net periodic benefit costs, excluding service costs, in benefit plan income, net on its Consolidated Statements of Income.
In 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-18, Statement of Cash Flows (ASC Topic 230): Restricted Cash, and ASU No. 2016-15, Statement of Cash Flows (ASC Topic 230): Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments. These standards were issued to resolve numerous diversities in practice with regard to the presentation and classification of certain cash receipts and payments in the statement of cash flows. The standards were effective for the Company on February 4, 2018, and were adopted using a retrospective transition method to each prior period presented. As of February 2, 2019 and February 3, 2018, restricted cash balances were primarily included within prepaid expenses and other current assets on the Consolidated Balance Sheets. The following summarizes the beginning-of-period and end-of-period restricted cash balances included for 2018, 2017 and 2016 when reconciling the Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows movement.
In addition to these changes, the Company changed the classification of $34 million of cash payments for the prepayment of debt from an operating outflow to a financing outflow for 2017.
In February 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-02, Income Statement - Reporting Comprehensive Income (Topic 220): Reclassification of Certain Tax Effects from Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income, which allows for stranded tax effects in accumulated other comprehensive income resulting from H.R. 1, originally known as the “Tax Cuts and Jobs Act,” to be reclassified to retained earnings. The Company early adopted this standard during the first quarter of 2018 and, as a result, reclassified $164 million of stranded tax effects to retained earnings.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842), which requires lessees to recognize substantially all leases on-balance sheet and disclose key information about leasing arrangements. The new standard establishes a right of use ("ROU") model that requires a lessee to recognize a ROU asset and lease liability on the balance sheet for all leases with a term longer than 12 months. Leases will be classified as finance or operating, with classification affecting the pattern and classification of expense recognition in the income statement. The new standard is effective for the Company on February 3, 2019 and will be adopted utilizing a modified retrospective approach that allows for transition in the period of adoption, with certain practical expedients available.
The Company estimates the adoption of the standard will result in total assets and liabilities increasing by approximately $2.4 billion to $3.0 billion as of February 3, 2019. The standard is not expected to materially affect consolidated net income, which is expected to be impacted by changes to the timing of recognition of certain real estate asset sale gains due to application of the new sale-leaseback guidance and ASU No. 2017-05, Other Income - Gains and Losses from the Derecognition of Nonfinancial Assets (Subtopic 610-20).
The entire disclosure for organization, consolidation and basis of presentation of financial statements disclosure.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef